Limiting global warming is nowadays considered to be the most important task for humanity as a whole. European Union member states have set themselves the long-term goals of achieving climate neutrality by 2050 and reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 55% by 2030. The United States have now undertaken a similar commitment. The CO2IN project is also intended to contribute towards achieving these goals.
The Earth’s climate has changed in the past, it is changing now, and it will change in the future. Greenhouse gas emissions, deforestation, inappropriate agricultural practices and environmental pollution by humans in the last two centuries have, however, given rise to changes with material impacts on the environment all over the planet. From the climate perspective, the increased levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere by approximately 40%, accompanied by increased levels of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), are particularly significant. The phenomena accompanying these atmospheric changes are referred to as climate change, the main manifestations of which are global warming, extreme weather fluctuations, changes in rainfall distribution, and rising sea levels.
In contrast to natural climate changes, the human-induced change is very rapid and thus significantly limits adaptation by fauna and flora to these new conditions. In many areas it can pose a threat to agricultural production and cause water shortages, with rising sea levels threatening the often densely populated coastal areas. In extreme cases, some areas will become completely uninhabitable due to high temperatures and lack of water.